Volume 11, Number 1

No Child is Left Behind? —— Education Problems of Left-behind Children in China


Yaoyu Zhang, Xiamen University, China


Urbanization in developing countries has raised concerns about the education of left-behind children. Using the fixed effect model and the time-varying difference-in-difference model, we examine how leftbehind experiences affect children’s educational choices and identities. We find that left-behind children have an approximately 2% higher probability to drop out of school. They tend to report lower levels of education expectations and education expenditures. The negative effect of left-behind experiences on education outcomes is significant, particularly among middle-school students. Despite improved living conditions, these findings suggest that left-behind experiences have hindered many children from enjoying educational success.


Left-behind children, Drop out, Education, Parental Migration.